Irene of Athens (c. 752 – 803 AD) was Byzantine empress from 797 to 802. Subscribe to our free weekly newsletter and join our 5,128 subscribers to stay up to date on History of Royal Women's articles! This made Leo’s younger brother, Nikephoros, mad. The reason he chose her is unclear. Impress definition, to affect deeply or strongly in mind or feelings; influence in opinion: He impressed us as a sincere young man. Irene of Athens (Greek: Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία, Eirénē ē Athēnaía; c. 752 – 9 August 803), surnamed Sarantapechaina (Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress by marriage to Emperor Leo IV from 775 to 780, regent during the minority of their son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, co-regent from 792 until 797, and finally sole ruler and first empress regnant of the Byzantine Empirefrom 797 to 802. After Staurakios's death, Aetios became the leading man in the state. A After her death, she became a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church. [40] However, his mother had no plans to relinquish her power to him. Empress definition is - the wife or widow of an emperor. Irene, Byzantine ruler and saint of the Greek Orthodox Church who was instrumental in restoring the use of icons in the Eastern Roman Empire. Saint Michael the Archangel (right leaf of the diptych) Early sixth century Ivory 1'5" x 5(1/2)" Term. by Mark Cartwright published on 15 November 2017. [69] By the end of her reign, the Byzantines were no longer paying tribute to the Bulgars. It is often claimed she called herself basileus, 'emperor'. By the time of her abdication, she had a large amount of money which she handed over to Nikephoros. irene (Noun) The hydrocarbon formed by dehydration of irone. Russia (as. Her usurpation of the imperial throne created a theoretical justification for the coronation of Charlemagne. A Byzantine empress who ruled from 797–802, during the time of Charlemagne's coronation. [41] Irene found another bride for him. 135-138. There also was the statue of the empress Eudoxia, famous in the history of Chrysostom, the pedestal of which is preserved near the church of St Irene. 8, Gale, 2004, pp. 0. Irene was also known for her generous financial policies, which were especially friendly to monasteries. August 26, 2017 [25] When Irene learned about the plot, she was furious. Stephen.[7]. A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank and title to a king, who reigns in her own right over a realm known as a "kingdom"; as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king; or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and rules temporarily in the child's stead, be it de jure in sharing power, or de facto in ruling alone. However, Elpidios fled to Africa, where the Arabs received him as the Roman Emperor. The wife of the Byzantine emperor Leo IV, Irene became, on her husband’s death in September 780, guardian of their 10-year-old son, Constantine VI, and , 2nd ed., vol. The empress Theodora (842-857) hung, crucified, beheaded or drowned some Ioo,000 of them, and drove yet more over the frontier, where from Argaeum, Amara, Tephrike and other strongholds their generals Karbeas and Chrysocheir harried the empire, until 873, when … MILLER, D. A. To make Elpidios submit, Irene had his wife and sons, whom Elpidios left in Constantinople, scourged, tortured, and imprisoned. [10] Empress Irene strongly supported the veneration of icons. Empress Irene was the wife of Leo IV and, on her husband's death, she reigned as regent for her son Constantine VI from 780 to 790 CE. When Constantine VI had a son with Theodote, the people proclaimed him illegitimate. [3] In 769,  Emperor Constantine V chose her as a bride for his son and co-ruler Leo IV. A Byzantine empress who ruled from 797–802, during the time of Charlemagne's coronation. [15] During Lent of that year, Leo IV began to persecute Iconophiles. The Year of the Duchess of Windsor (2021), Burial places of the Queens and Consorts of England, Burial places of the Queens Consort of France, Burial places of the Queens and Consorts of Portugal, Burial Places of the Queens and Consorts of Spain, Carolina of Orange-Nassau – Ancestress of the Royal Houses of Europe, Queen Wilhelmina – A collection of articles. Synonym Discussion of impress. [53]  On October 7, 796, he entered into an unholy marriage with Theodote, his mistress. [24] In February 781, Elpidios, the Strategos (Governor) of Sicily, planned to depose her and make Nikephoros regent for Constantine VI. [43] From this point on, relations between Constantine VI and his mother Irene worsened. [19] He was defeated. 8, Gale, 2004, pp. [52] He shocked the public in 795 when he repudiated his Empress and placed her in a convent. The Marótlaka's most famous members were perhaps Busir and his sister the Byzantine Empress Theodora, then Bihar and his daughter the Byzantine Empress Irene, then the Bulanids. Find patient medical information for Enpresse Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. On August 15, 797, Empress Irene ordered her son to be blinded, causing her son to die of this mutilation. On Christmas Day in 800, during a visit to Rome, the Pope placed an imperial crown on Charlemagne’s head and gave him the title of “Holy Roman Emperor”. Irene (ProperNoun) Eirene, the Greek goddess of peace, … [12] He made his people swear to accept no one on the throne except for Constantine VI and his descendants. Irene had immediate problems and had to quash a rebellion led by the other sons of Constantine V(r. 741-775 CE) and half-brothers of Leo IV. [60] No woman had ever reigned on her own in the Roman empire before. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. “Irene of Athens.” Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed., vol. Byzantine Empire, Irene of Athens Before that, Irene was empress consort from 775 to 780, and empress dowager and regent from 780 to 797. Empress Irene was born between 750 and 755 into a noble family of Athens. [61] Thus, the Pope considered the throne vacant[62]. Check your inbox or spam folder to confirm your subscription. Definition of irene of athens in the Definitions.net dictionary. Your email address will not be published. Definition. She summoned Elpidios to Constantinople, but the Sicilians refused to surrender him to her. [29] This left a large province-wide open to an Arab attack. Irene celebrated his victory by hosting a triumph in 784. Emperor Leo IV was an iconoclast, which viewed the veneration of icons as idolatry. To prevent this, Irene had to negotiate an immense annual tribute of 70,000 or 90,000 dinars to the Abbasids for a three-year truce. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. However, most historians believe that it was because of Irene’s beauty. [47] However, In September of 790, the troops Armeniac province refused to swear the oath and rebelled. He also did not take any interest in parenthood while his aunt, In one of her letters to Dennis Diderot, she referred to how she saw her responsibility as the, By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman, She recruited Gerard van Swieten, who founded the Vienna General Hospital, revamped Austria's educational system, and served as the, Maria Antonia (1755 – 1793), commonly known as Marie Antoinette, was born in Vienna as the youngest daughter of. (verb) [30] She also had to give them 10,000 silk garments and to provide them with guides, provisions, and access to markets during their withdrawal from the Byzantine Empire. A king could not be succeeded by his mother or a daughter. empresses synonyms, empresses pronunciation, empresses translation, English dictionary definition of empresses. [63] This restored the Roman Empire of the west. We use cookies to ensure a personalised experience on our website. Learn more. [45] Forcing Irene and Constantine VI to leave the palace to seek shelter, Staurakios formed a counter-attack in which Irene’s men succeeded. Empress Irene Detail of the Pala d'Oro, Saint Mark's, Venice, Italy ca. [26] A year later, she sent a fleet to Sicily against Elpidios. What does disinherit mean? Simply click 'close' in the top right corner to continue reading! 7, Gale, Victoria Kaʻiulani – The last Crown Princess of Hawaii. [36] In 784, she replaced the Patriarch of Constantinople with the moderate Tarasius. After Irene's rise to sole rule, Aetios developed an intense rivalry with her eunuch chief minister Staurakios. [70] Her financial policy was successful. But it was Leo’s wife, Empress Irene, who sustained the practice of venerating images in her secret devotions during the suppression. Press "agree" if you are okay with this. Definition and Origins. Charlemagne knew that Irene’s days would end and there would be another Byzantine ruler to take her place. She was very insecure in her position, which led her to become ruthless. How to use impress in a sentence. The Emperor Irene. Etymology: Irène, from Εἰρήνη eirēnē "peace", name of a goddess of peace, of early Christian saints, and of an 8th-century Byzantine empress. Irene of Athens An East Roman (Byzantine) empress, Irene of Athens (752-803) convened the Seventh Ecumenical Council and restored the veneration of icons in the Byzantine Empire. Except where noted, content and user contributions on this site are licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 with attribution required. Empress Irene was the wife of Leo IV and, on her husband's death, she reigned as regent for her son Constantine VI from 780 to 790 CE. [46] She confined her son and demanded an oath of fealty from Constantine VI’s army to acknowledge her as ruler. However, she was very successful with Bulgaria. Leo began to promote iconoclast monasteries. In 802, Irene was overthrown in a palace coup by Nikephoros. [33]In May, she and Constantine VI visited the Greek province of Thrace. She born between 750 and 755 CE and was related in some way to the noble Greek Sarantapechos family of Athens. The female monarch (ruler) of an empire. His eyes were gouged out, and according to most contemporary accounts, he died from his wounds a few days later, leaving Irene to be crowned as first Empress regnant of Constantinople. [38] The Council ended with Tarasius in favour of icon veneration[39]. [65], However, her overthrow prevented her marriage to Charlemagne. It is often claimed she called herself " … [21], During Irene’s reign as regent for her son, she named herself co-ruler. She was Maria of Amnia. By a fortuitous occurrence, the plot was thwarted by an earthquake. Once that was dealt with, she ensured the loyalty of the palace entourag… Define empresses. quotations ▼ (tarot) The third trump or major arcana card of … How to use empress in a sentence. Empress Irene (image from “Pala d’Oro”, Venice) Not much is known about Irene’s early life. Garland, Lynda. [27], In 782, Irene appointed Michael Lachanodrakon, Constantine V’s general, to attack the Arab army on the Eastern frontier. [48] Irene’s authority was rejected, and Constantine VI was now confirmed as sole ruler. Learn how your comment data is processed. To exclude from inheritance or the right to inherit. For the next hundred years, several Tang leaders ruled, including a woman. Following the Seven Years' War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, However, Marie Antoinette's mother and the Austrian ambassador to France, comte de Mercy-Argenteau who was sending the, After the death of Constantine's son, Leo IV (who ruled from 775 CE–780 CE), his wife, In 1724, Peter had his second wife, Catherine, crowned as, Catherine was the first woman to rule Imperial Russia (as, Catherine, Peter's second wife, was the first woman to rule Imperial She was an orphan, and there is some mystery around why she was chosen from obscurity to be the bride of Leo IV, heir to Constantinople. [54] Many people believed this marriage to be adulterous. Meaning of irene of athens. Your data will be shared with Google and other ad vendors. In 706 the wife of Emperor Zhongzong of Tang, Just as Emperor Zhongzong was dominated by. [66] She abdicated and spent the rest of her life in Lesbos, where she died in 803. 1105 CE Gold cloisonné inlaid with precious stones 7" x 4(1/2)" Term. [4] On November 1, 769, Irene arrived in Constantinople. [51] This made him very unpopular, and in order to secure his throne, he made his mother co-ruler in January 792. [64] He proposed marriage to Empress Irene, which she consented. In 788, she broke off the marriage to Charlemagne’s daughter because it seemed that Charlemagne was unwilling to part with his daughter. An emperor (from Latin: imperator, via Old French: empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. See more. ‘In the last years of the eighth century an iconodule party was in power, and the ruler was a woman, the Empress Irene, who had achieved her position by having her son, the Emperor Constantine VI, blinded.’ Constantine was the son of Leo IV (r. 775-780 CE) and when, in 780 CE, his father died of fever, aged just 30, Constantine became emperor Constantine VI. Nikephoros’s army was arrested, tortured, and banished. Her men were victorious. Not interested? On January 14, 771, Irene gave birth to a son named Constantine VI. “Irene, Byzantine Empress.” New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., vol. [14] In 780, he made Paul of Cyprus, who was suspected of being an iconophile, to swear an oath to uphold iconoclasm. [17], On September 8, 780, Leo IV died, leaving his wife free to instil her beliefs as regent for their ten-year-old son, Constantine V.I[18] However, many people opposed her rule as regent. However, on Easter in 776, Leo IV crowned his son co-ruler of the Byzantine Empire. 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